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cause and effects of ore mining in india

cause and effects of ore mining in india

Mining in India: Why the country is facing an uncertain future

While India boasts significant resources, with the worlds fourth largest deposits of coal according to World Atlas, stores of many of these minerals are geographically disparate, raising the potential for conflict between local and national governments over the wealth of the countrys five separate mineral belts. According to the national government, Indian copper ore reserves totalled 207 million tonnes in 2015, for instance, but 154 million of these deposits were located in the central state of Madhya Pradesh, which also boasts the countrys largest diamond reserves. The country also had 656Mt of bauxite in 2015, but around half of this total was found in the eastern state of Odisha. A similar concentration is seen in the distribution of silver ore, where Rajasthan has 138Mt of the countrys 2015 total of 150Mt. However, while nine states are known to have bauxite reserves, just two states Rajasthan and Karnataka are reported to have deposits of silver ore, a more dramat...

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Another significant driver for change in India is the National Mineral Policy , a directive released in 2019 that will govern the countrys mining sector, and replaces the 2008 version of the policy that has been in place for the last decade. The NMP grants states some powers with regard to mineral exploration and permitting, but stresses that local governments are encouraged to endeavour to auction mineral blocks with pre embedded statutory clearances in order to avoid delays in the process of mine permitting and construction. As a result, the NMP could be described as company friendly, with an emphasis on streamlining the permitting and construction processes. The document introduces triggers at higher level in the event of delay, enabling decision makers to expedite the permitting process if it is being delayed. The clause highlights the apparent importance of ensuring mining work begins quickly, rather than necessarily once thorough environmental assessments have been c...

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The new NMP could be particularly disappointing to environmental groups, who have argued that the previous NMP did not do enough to protect Indias land in general, and forests in particular, from the damage of mining. A 2019 study by Ram Ranjan at Macquarie University Sydney found that districts that produced coal, iron ore, and limestone experienced, on average, 450km2 more forest loss than other districts. The same study found that districts with minimal mineral production had, on average, 350km2less forest loss than average districts. Furthermore, a key motivator behind the updated NMP is a 2017 decision by the countrys Supreme Court, which ruled against a number of illegal miners in three Odisha districts who destroyed the environment and forests and perhaps caused untold misery to the tribal communities in the area. The court encouraged the government to implement a more robust mining policy, that did more to protect the environment and could be effectively enforced on a...

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