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concentration of coppet ores is carried out by

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s durability.) Copper and bronze were employed for the making of mirrors by most of the Mediterranean civilizations of the Bronze Age period. The obliteration of Carthage by the Romans has obscured developments in Northern Africa at that time. It is only quite recently that evidence of the considerable engineering skills...

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The invention of printing increased the demand for copper because of the ease with which copper sheets could be engraved for use as printing plates to give accurate reproduction of illustrations and maps. In Germany, playing card designs were engraved on copper as far back as 1430. Copper plates have long been adopted as the best means of engraving maps. The first known maps printed from copper plates are two Italian editions, dated 1472, by the geographer Ptolemy. Copper or bronze wire then became a very important product, being vital for the weaving industry. The use of copper for sheathing the hulls of wooden boats was developed initially to prevent attacks on the timbers in subtropical waters by the teredo worm but it was subsequently found that copper clad hulls also resist marine biofouling. This useful property prevented the heavy drag caused by the growth of weed that the speed of ships. (It has been reported that Lord Nelson39;s victory at Trafalgar resulted in part f...

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The oldest methods for removing rock from underground mines were the sledgehammer and wedge and the equally ancient technique of fire setting. In the latter case a fire set up against a rock face would produce thermal expansion stresses the rock would either crumble naturally or could be shattered by water quenching. It was some time after the Islamic world introduced blasting powders from China to Europe in the 13th Century that explosives were first used specifically for mining. Today the old mining techniques have been replaced almost entirely by blasting with safe modern explosives and the use of heavy duty mechanical cutting equipment, where the rock is soft enough to merit such treatment.

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Introduction to Copper: ApplicationsIntroduction to Copper: Types of CopperIntroduction to Copper: Fact Sheets

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