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oxide and sulphide ores

oxide and sulphide ores

these are the great heap weathering operations at Rio Tinto, Tharsis, and some of the Russian mines. Oxidation of the sulfides by ferric sulfate and solution of the oxides by sulfuric acid, also formed from ferric sulfate, are the reactions that take place. Ferric sulfate has many possibilities in connection with a mixed copper ore. It w... at a higher temperature, the copper sulfate is in part decomposed to oxide and acid must be used to dissolve it. To be efficient, sulfating roasting should give satisfactory commercial recover... shot iron is used occasionally, in tumbling barrels. It is not easy to make a neat job of this precipitation.

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Contrary, to the predictions of eminent men in the profession, good electrolytic copper is being made from leach solutions coming directly off the ore. The difficulties in doing this at the plant of the Chile Copper Co., where chlorides and nitrates are dissolved from the , ore, seem to have been successfully overcome. The difficulties at New Cornelia are of more immediate interest in this connection, as the oxidized portion of the New Cornelia is much like the oxide ore in other mines where a mixed ore treatment is being considered. The successful production of electrolytic copper, at Ajo depends on control of the ferric iron in the solution entering the tank house. A good deal of iron, in both ferrous and ferric forms, is dissolved from the ore. More ferric is produced from ferrous during electrolysis, and there is very little reduction of iron during leaching. If satisfactory power efficiency is to be maintained in electrolysis, the iron must be reduced artificially, which is don...

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If a 2 or 3 per cent, solution of copper as sulfate is saturated with sulfur dioxide in a closed vessel, and heated to a temperature of about 150° C., approximately one half of the copper is precipitated as crystalline metal, with regeneration of a corresponding amount of sulfuric acid. For many ores, the amount of acid made in this way would be sufficient to dissolve the soluble copper and no acid need be brought in for the purpose. The method is not new. The first patent covering it expired in 1921, but so far as I know, it has not been used on a commercial scale. The full scale application may not be as easy as the description would indicate. The heating of a dilute copper solution means the expenditure of much fuel and fuel efficiency means, in this case, careful heat interchange between solution going to precipitation and solution returning from it. The vessels in which copper is precipitated must be large if the plant is to turn out 75,000 or 100,000 lb. of copper per day. The...

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The use of waste sulfur dioxide is invariably suggested when one considers the smoke escaping from the stacks of a neighboring smelter; equally suggestive is the possibility of utilizing other smelter products as adjuncts to hydrometallurgical processes. Hydrogen sulfide can easily be made from low grade copper matte, or from matte made specially for the purpose. It might well be used as a precipitant for copper, either from a clear solution or in a pulp, following solution by acid, and preceding flotation, either of the precipitated sulfides alone or together with the natural sulfides of the ore. In either case, precipitation of copper from sulfate solution by hydrogen sulfide results in the regeneration of an equivalent amount of sulfuric acid, and, if the operation takes place in a clear solution, this acid can be used in cyclic operation to dissolve soluble copper minerals from the next batch of ore. As far as I know, this method has been tried only on a test plant scale of a fe...

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and to the secretarial staff of the Bureau for typing and reproducing the manuscript. Especially, the authors express their gratitude to those companies that contributed samples and data for this study.

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Scope

This method appears to be a simple, yet accurate, means for determining the free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable cations and a common anion. It should be of particular value in analyzing leach solutions. While testing has indicated that it works well on liquors containing H2SO4 it remains to be seen how well it will work on HCl and HNO3 solutions.

Principle

In this method, the acid content of an unknown sample is determined by comparing its pH with that of a known sample having a pH value close to that of the unknown. Conversion of pH values to grams of acid per liter of solution is accomplished by means of the equation pH = log . It has been determined empirically that the pH of a sulfuric acid solution is not appreciably influenced by the presence of other hydrolyzable or nanhydrolyzable cations...

Equipment and Supplies

The main equipment used in this determination is a pH meter. While a pH meter with a digital readout or one with an expanded scale may be useful in obtaining a high degree of accuracy, a standard pH meter is sufficient in most applications. A single, combination electrode is much easier to use than two standard electrodes. A number of standard acid solutions are required, i.e., solutions in 0.25 gpl H2SO4 increments up to 3.00 gpl H2SO4 in 0. 50 gpl H2SO4 increments between 3.00 gpl H2SO4 a...

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