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slag beneficiation plant images

slag beneficiation plant images

Coal Beneficiation Process Diagram

Economic and operating conditions make it important to provide a simple, low cost, efficient method for recovering fine coal from washery waste. Not only is the water pollution problem a serious one, but refuse storage and disposal in many areas is becoming and more difficult. Many breakers and washeries efficiently handle the coarser sizes, but waste the coal fines. This problem is assuming major importance due to the increase in the amount of coal fines being produced by the mechanization of coal mining. Flotation offers a very satisfactory low cost method for recovering a fine, low ash, clean coal product at a profit. Often this fine coal, when combined with the cleaned, coarser fractions, results in an over all superior product, low in ash and sulphur, giving maximum profit returns per unit mined.

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High cost of mining makes it very important from a profit standpoint to recover all of the low ash coal, both coarse and fines. With the present trend toward mechanization, more fines are produced in mining. In many operations it is no longer economical to discard these fines to waste even though ash contiminants render the fines unmarketable without additional cleaning. Water conservation, stream pollution and refuse storage are also factors which must be taken into consideration along with marketing requirements for the clean coal product. Flotation offers an efficient and low cost method for recovering coal fines at a profit. In many cases floated coal fines can be blended with the coarser fractions without affecting ash, moisture or size limitations. This is being done successfully in coking coal operations. Fine coal is also being used extensively in steam plants for electric power generation.

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In the washing of coal the problem exists in having to clean the fines in an economical and efficient manner without an excessively complex flowsheet. Mechanized mining creates fines not considered as problems in older methods of selective mining and underground loading. In many cases the minus 1/8 inch fines require cleaning to lower the ash content and frequently it is also necessary to reclaim all of the water for re use in the washing system. Most plants use a closed water system to conserve water and comply with anti stream pollution regulations.

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Market Specifications

Ash and sulphur content is desired to be as low as, or lower than, for regular lump coal. Generally, for anthracite, not over 13 per cent ash is desired. Bituminous coal operations usually limit ash to not more than 8 per cent in the fines.

Production Problems

Flotation or gravity concentration are generally applied only to washery fines that otherwise would not be saleable and which generally have to be impounded to prevent stream pollution. Because of the low price secured, the expense of treatment must be held to a minimum. Pyrite and coarser ash forming content may need to be removed by gravity treatment. The trend toward mechanized mining methods has increased the production of coal fines, thus increasing the necessity of fine coal cleaning. F...

Reagent Combinations

Kerosene or fuel oil with pine oil, or alcohol, frother are the more common reagents used. Cresylic acid frother may sometimes be advantageous. Fine pyrite, if free, may be rejected with the high ash refuse by addition of lime to the flotation feed. Under proper conditions, coal as coarse as 10 mesh may be effectively floated with kerosene and pine oil. For this coarse flotation it is generally necessary to classify out the high ash 200 mesh slimes ahead of flotation. Coal: Stainless steel s...

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